Nuclear blast© Depositphotos / curraheeshutter
MOSCOW, 10 Nov — Andrew Kots. Radioactive contamination, earthquake, disruption of natural atmospheric processes and uncontrollable power of the most powerful weapon in the history of mankind, a character in the middle of the last century, the testing of nuclear warheads, quickly realized that the planet Earth is not an army training ground. Exactly 55 years ago, October 10, 1963, entered into force the Treaty banning nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water. The document was signed by the leading military powers of the time — USSR, USA and UK. But not all members of the nuclear club joined him.
Trial by fire
Today, a nuclear explosion is a physical phenomenon, studied from almost all sides. By 1963, opponents of the cold war has managed to undermine in the water, the air and on the ground thousands of ammunition in the hundreds of kilotons, tens of megatons. Scientists and the military got a lot of information about the behavior of such weapons, proficient method revealed its strengths and weaknesses, created a means of protection from damaging factors. Showing what you are capable of a nuclear bomb, these tests actually prevented a third world war. And caused at least serious, but irretrievable damage.
Many former atomic polygons are still unsuitable for human habitation. For example, the Paradise of the Bikini Atoll, part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, has long been used by the Pentagon for the test explosions of nuclear and thermonuclear weapons. So, on 1 March 1954, the Americans blew up here the hydrogen bomb Castle Bravo. As fuel in the munition was first used lithium deuteride, located in the shell of depleted uranium. Design capacity ranged from four to eight megatons. However, the explosion exceeded all expectations: Castle Bravo exploded as 15 million tons of TNT. Were in the bunker observers described the blast damage as a strong earthquake, which the shelter “great slosh”. The fungus has turned out much more than the first thermonuclear test (1 November 1952): the height of 60 kilometers, the diameter of the “cap” — 100 kilometres “trunk” — seven kilometers. The explosion caused tremendous destruction, forever changing the shape of Bikini Atoll.